Apex Nutrition Boot Camp - Week 4

Week 4 – Hydration for Athletes – On & Off the Clock

Week 4 Contents (click to jump down):

Day 1:

Quote of the Week: There are 7 days in a week, and someday is not one of them.

One of the most common issues with online programs, self-help books, boot camps like this, and coaching plans is that we often feel a sense of accomplishment by just buying them, or just starting them.

And of course, these are necessary first steps.

But how many have you purchased that you never put into practice? How many are downloaded onto your computer, printed out and filed, or put off day after day?

I will be the FIRST here to admit, I do this all the time. Several times per year. I’m a sucker for self-help, but often when the self-help describes the work involved, I’m onto the next thing.

Some things absolutely stick…but others don’t. The difference? I’ve found in my own life, I have to 5-4-3-2-1 start it RIGHT away, put the strategies/habits into practice, and then revisit it at least yearly or several times per year.

How about you? Are you grabbing onto this? At least 1 habit per week? Are you ready to practice this habit, and then revisit it all to make it a part of your lifestyle?

I hope so!

And if not, how can start? What’s been your own path to success in the past with making new habits stick? I’d love to hear about it in this week’s forum.


First, like week’s past, I’m gonna make the case to start. 

Just like most of our nutrition topics, there’s hydration for everyday nutrition and hydration for performance. Both are important. Both have an acute and chronic impact on your well-being, and your performance. Let’s start with every day.

Second, consider this. Water, and other water-containing hydrating fluids (like green tea) impact *every* system in the body.  When you get enough, what happens? LOTS. We’re talking full-body, all-systems health and wellness. Here are just a few of the systems and impacts of adequate everyday hydration:

  • Brain (it’s mostly fluid & requires adequate fluid to remove toxins and perform it’s best)
  • Digestive Tract (alleviate constipation and improve digestion with adequate fluid)
  • Skin (your skin needs hydration – and it needs it from the inside out)
  • Joints (joints require fluid as their lubrication. And, some arthritis and gout is worsened when the body dehydrated)
  • Eyes (eyes tend to experience more, or more dramatic, eye strain when dehydrated…itchy eyes, tired eyes, double vision, headaches, etc.)
  • Immune (our lymph system is made of fluids, and requires it to remove toxins in our bodies and fight bacteria & viruses)
  • Kidneys & Liver (our kidneys and liver filter out toxins, proteins, electrolytes, minerals, and more, allowing your body to keep what you need and excrete what you don’t…all of this depends on fluid)
  • Muscles (dehydrated muscles can seize and cramp during physical activity, and also require fluids to use amino acids to rebuild and repair after damage or strain)
  • Healthy Weight (this is not a system, I know…but I often see people eat more and mistake thirst for hunger when dehydrated. Think you’re hungry but not yet time to eat? Drink 16 oz. water first..let it subside and then move on with your meal plan).
  • All Systems.

Third, how much, and how much is too much? We’re gonna have have a fluid challenge, complete with numbers, and it’s gonna start tomorrow. Yes, it’s possible for athletes to over-hydrate (although, it’s not so much too much water and a lack of balance with water and electrolytes). We’ll work out these numbers and start adequately hydrating right away (5-4-3-2-1).

Now, I will be the first to tell you that there is little scientific basis for the 64 oz. water per day rule. BUT, I will also tell you that most adults feel pretty good when they get this amount in.

I will also tell you that while studies may support that you don’t *need* more to live, there are a lot of benefits when you get more.

So, it’s sort of taking it beyond “surviving” and more to “thriving.”

Fourth, think about hydration in your training or races. Have you ever full blown bonked because of dehydration?

Again, I’ll be the first to admit. I have. I’m talking parched. Dizzy. Tired. Oh-so-suddenly tired.

There’s more than fluid that goes into this (again, electrolytes and fuels like carbs play a role), but at the center of it is dehydration.

Your body simply needs fluid. In fact, for every pound of body weight lost during training (through sweat, respiration, and urination), you’ve lost 15-16 oz. of fluid. Just a 3% loss of body weight due to dehydration can significantly impair your performance, muscle contractile strength, and speed.  Some effects of dehydration are:

  •      0-1% body weight loss                 = thirst
  •       2%                                                   = stronger thirst, vague discomfort, loss of appetite
  •       3%                                                    = decreased blood volume, impaired perrformance
  •       4%                                                   = increased effort for work, nausea
  •       5%                                                   = difficulty in concentrating
  •       6%                                                   = failure to regulate body temperature

I’m pretty sure I’ve been in the 3-4% body weight loss range. I’ve been with others that have dipped beyond this, requiring IV fluids to gain back their health. How ’bout you? How far have you gone, and why did it happen?

For my part, some of it was simply being young and naive. I grew up playing indoor gym ball sports, where the duration was mostly 2 hours or less, and hydration was readily available.

In college, I fell in love with endurance, and mountains, and all different ways of summitting them.  I can remember hiking/climbing 3000-4000 feet over tough terrain in all sorts of weather, carrying only 2 L of fluid between both my husband and I. Thirty-two ounces each, for 6 hours of moderately intense work, all above 11000 feet.

Although we were generally in good physical shape, we felt like crap most of the hike, especially above 12K, and then like the walking-dead once it was over. We honestly thought this was just par for the course.

I was a biology major at the time. Then, I switched to nutrition, and I started figuring it out.

The first time we hydrated well, with fluids, sodium chloride, and carbs, we could hardly believe it. We felt like running circles above 14K. It was so obvious, so dramatically different;  it was great. And when we were done? Sure, we were tired, but not zombies.

Although maybe not as dramatic (some are this dramatic), I have the pleasure of hearing similar stories from so many of the clients I work with. When we dial in daily and training nutrition, I often hear:

  • “I just realized, I feel *good* during and after hard climbs.”
  • “Suddenly, I’m at the lead of the pack instead of hanging onto the back guys’ pedal.”
  • “I’m not feeling like taking a nap every afternoon – I don’t hit the wall at work anymore.”

These statements are common, and it’s not because I’ve provided any genius level information. It’s all just a matter of giving your body the fuel (and the fluids) it needs when it needs them. It takes a plan, and for some, and release of fueling-guilt.

Fifth, what the heck is fueling-guilt? I don’t know why it exists, but I know it’s there. There’s something in athletes that causes us to only feel good, when we feel bad. I think we’ve worked hard and taught ourselves to push past pain…so if there’s not as much pain, maybe we haven’t worked as hard?

It’s the tough-guy/gal mentality, and I often have to work with athletes to get past it. It’s nothing new. Some ancient marathons were run to see who could go the farthest without hydration.  As if that somehow makes you stronger (I think it makes you dumber)?

In modern times, I hear it in about 50% of interviews of elite athletes –  this need to act like you don’t need much. Needing less makes you tough, needing more makes you weak. How about giving your body the fuel and hydration it needs? From “Born to Run” (a fabulous book) to magazine articles, this theme is prevalent. And I despise it.

Sixth, we could talk about this at any point, but hydration seems to be a good fit. If you’d like to hear just how tough I’m *not*, and how I don’t have any guilt in fueling and feeling good (and neither should you), here’s a podcast I did on this very subject:

I’m NOT Tough.

Today’s Challenge:

First, take a look at your own daily hydration – how much are you usually drinking? Are there any obstacles you can see that make it tough for you?

Second, do you have good systems in place for hydrating well on 90+ minutes training/racing. Sometimes, it’s just in the logistics and we’ll discuss these this week.

Third, and maybe most importantly for today, are you convinced hydration is worthwhile? Do you have any tough-guy/tough-gal hang-ups that may be getting in the way of hydrating (or fueling) well?

That wraps up week 4, day 1! We’ll dive into the deep end with hydration this week – from everyday to training to logistics to over-hydrating. Looking forward to it…

(Click here to head back to the Boot Camp HOMEPAGE)

Day 2:

Quote of the Week: There are 7 days in a week, and someday is not one of them.


First, let’s talk about how much daily water and fluids, and what counts and what doesn’t. There’s no hard and fast rule here, but I’m going to offer a challenge that I know will hydrate you well without pushing you towards too much (see below in “Today’s Challenge”).

I dare you to drink 80-100 oz. per day (women) and 100-120 oz. per day (men) PLUS 16-24 oz. per hour of your workout…all by 6 pm (the workout hydration can be consumed anytime you workout, but the daily hydration before 6 pm).


This number includes all water, green tea, and up to 16 oz. black tea OR coffee (additional tea, coffee, and other drinks are in addition and excluded from this calculation).

I know this is a lot.

You may find you’re headed to the bathroom more than you want, so use some trial and error to figure out the best times for you. But I also know this…you will notice a difference with this amount.

You will feel better. You will likely look better.  And, as long as you get it all in by early evening, you may even sleep better.

Join me and try it for the last 3 weeks of this boot camp, and let me know what you find.

Second, let’s go beyond water. Within the Fluids Categories, there is one other type of fluid that stands above the rest to provide health benefits: tea. Tea leaves have A LOT to offer. We’re talking antioxidants, phytochemicals, anti-bacterial properties and even metabolic boost. Read the details:

Want an  easy way to add green tea & black tea to your day? Try cold-brewing…here’s how:



Or, view it on YouTube: https://youtu.be/RR50yKREFxI

Third, how much is too much? In a general sense, I believe it’s hard to get too much daily hydration. Here are the issues I see and how to avoid them:

  1. If you drink too much after 6pm, it can definitely disrupt your sleep (your bladder can keep you up!).
  2. If you drink too much before a “big training” or race, you may dilute your electrolytes and begin it in a hyponatremic state. This is bad. You will likely dilute your plasma more and more throughout any training, so you want to start off with balance. The day before a big training (3+ hours) or race, include 2 servings of an electrolyte drink in place of regular water. Also add a 400-600 mg sodium (from salt, soy sauce, pickles, etc) to dinner and to your breakfast the morning of the race. These smaller amounts will allow you to “sodium load” without feeling swollen.
  3. You can certainly “over-hydrate” while training/racing IF you only replenish fluids and not electrolytes (especially sodium). However, this is a topic for another day, and we will dive into it thoroughly on Thursday.

Got questions? I’m happy to answer the forum: https://www.apexnutritionllc.com/fuelrightblog/forums/forum/apex-nutrition-boot-camp-forum-march-2019/

Today’s Challenge:

You’ve already read it: 80-100 oz. (women) and 100-120 oz. (men) + 16-24 oz. for every hour of working out. Water, green tea, and up to 16 oz. black tea. Drink all the “daily hydration” by 6 pm. I’m doing it and already feeling the benefits after just 1 week. You can do it. This one’s simple, but not necessarily easy. I believe it can have a huge impact on your health.

Tomorrow, we’ll discuss Training/Race Hydration.

(Click here to head back to the Boot Camp HOMEPAGE)

Day 3:

Quote of the Week: There are 7 days in a week, and someday is not one of them.


First, take a look at your Training Nutrition Fueling Plan again. If you don’t have it handy, you can download it here:

Training Nutrition Plan – Apex Nutrition

Second, consider how much hydration your body can use hour by hour and why it wants to use it (again, this is less than what you’re losing – digestion is your rate-limiting factor and trying to replenish all that you lose is a recipe for disaster).

Your body wants and needs water during training/racing because fluid is essential to its cooling system.

Did you know that humans are the only species of mammal that can cool while continuing to exercise/run?

Since we are able to sweat, unlike animals like dogs that have to pant, we can effectively cool (as long as we’re hydrated) while continuing to go. I’ve read that ancient hunters relied on this in order to “outrun” or more specifically “outlast” their prey.

Our cooling systems allow us to delay fatigue and overheating, but water is at the center of its effectiveness. When consuming water to keep your cooling system operational, you can likely tolerate and efficiently use:

18-24 oz. per hour (about 1 bottle or 580-750 mL) when doing any activity like cycling or riding 

12-16 oz. per hour when running

On the other hand, in warm (not even *hot*) conditions, most athletes lose 24-32 oz. per hour. If you’d like to figure out how much you “lose,” you can weigh yourself before and after training (try to use a typical training session in typical conditions for you). Take into account the weight of any fluids and/or foods you consumed – it’s usually easiest to do this during an hour session, when fluids/foods are not necessary.

For example:

Here’s my fluid loss experiment 2/7/18:

Temp: 2 deg F (BRRRR)

Weight before: 109 lbs

Activity Description: Uphill ski on my Backcountry set up (bigger set up), about 2000 ft. elevation gain in 1 hour. Moderate intensity.

Weight after: 107.8

Conclusion: There’s definitely some room for error in this simple experiment, but it appears that I “lose” about 1 lb (16 oz.) per hour fluid in a moderate intensity uphill ski workout. This is honestly more than I would expect at this temperature, so it’s good data for me moving forward. With this short a workout, it’s still not worthwhile for me to hydrate while skiing (that’s difficult anyway) – but good to know the minimum to replenish before and/or after.

***If it were long enough to hydrate during it, I would aim for about 75% of my losses.***

Third, consider when you need it. I’ve looked and looked, and I can’t find any specific studies that conclude at what duration water becomes significantly beneficial to performance.

With carbs, we know it’s 60+ minutes duration.

With fluids, this might just always be on a spectrum depending on how hydrated you are going into the training, and what the conditions are.

With anaerobic bouts, we know that even at 30 seconds duration, dehydration has a negative effect. So, I think it’s safe to say that fluid will basically *always* be beneficial, but you’ve got to take the conditions into consideration and determine where the cost/benefit (cost = weight and cumbersomeness of carrying it and drinking it) lies.

For me, I consider adding fluids for 60+ minutes, especially in the summer months, and especially if it’s easy to carry. If it’s cool, and I’m running (not as easy to carry), I’ll usually push this to 90+ minutes.

I recommend fluids each hour of all hot condition 60+ minutes, and any condition, 90+ minutes.

Fourth, think about the times when you may need/use a little less. I mentioned that I push “no fluids” for longer when I’m running, just because they are a pain to carry (and yes, I’ve tried all the gear). There are situations when you can use less per hour as well:

  • Running – For whatever reason, runners can often get away with less fluid consumption per hour than other athletes (such as cyclists). I recommend 8-12 oz. fluid per hour for runners in most condition; 12-16 oz. in hot conditions.
  • Cold-weather – this one can be tricky, because you can still sweat a lot in cold weather if you have a bunch of layers on. My base layer is generally soaked after an hour of uphill skiing, even in <=10 deg F weather. But still, most of the time, you likely don’t need as much as you do in hot weather. You can test it yourself, or error on the side of 12-16 oz. per hour.
  • Cooler night hours – ever trained or raced at night? You still need the fluids, but if the weather’s in the 40-60 deg F, you can usually get away with less fluid. Again, 12-16 oz. per hour.
  • Logistics & weather.

Fifth, if you lose more, should you drink more? I’ve had clients who lose 32+ oz. fluid per hour. I think it is a good idea to make up this amount at about 75% per hour while training/racing, and then the rest during the first few hours afterward. And, there can be some trial and error – if you simply feel like you lose a lot, and want to try consuming 28-30 oz. fluid per hour when training/racing, you certainly can try it AS LONG AS you’re getting in the needed amount of sodium as well. This is the key…see the sixth tool…

Sixth, consider that it’s vitally important to replenish sodium as well. Notice that I didn’t use the word “water” much in this hydration lesson – this is because I really believe you should almost always hydrate with a fluid that contains water and electrolytes (and carbs if 90+ minutes) – UNLESS you’ve got a good plan on how to get them all separately such as sodium supplements and other carb fuels.

If you’re going to carry the weight of the fluid, you may as well get all you need from it. So, how much sodium?

In normal conditions, 400+ mg sodium per hour (this is a minimum).

In hot conditions, I recommend 600+ mg sodium per hour. For some, through trial and error, they found that 800-1000 mg sodium per hour feels best.

How much do you lose? This of course, depends on how much fluid you lose. On average sweat contains 1000 mg of sodium per Liter (32 oz.) sweat.

If you want to listen to my podcast on this subject, listen in here:

How much sodium do you need?

Seventh (good grief!), here’s one of my all-time favorite commercials. It’s a Gatorade commercial, and no I’m not promoting Gatorade specifically. But, it’s such a good (sad) visual of dehydration and the difference hydration can make.


Or, watch it on YouTube: https://youtu.be/JgStAPQhA3M


Tomorrow, we’re going to talk about typical Athlete Hydration Pitfalls including hyponatremia (low sodium) specifically…so, I leave this topic for now.

Today’s Challenge: 

When training >90 minutes, do you get in enough fluid? If not, what’s stopping you? There are a lot of legitimate reasons to not get enough (weight, logistics), and some not-so-legitimate (like lack of preparation).  If you’re not, what’s stopping you?

Is there anything you can do today, to make sure you’re hydrating enough hour by hour of these longer trainings? Okay – get it done this week.

(Click here to head back to the Boot Camp HOMEPAGE)

Day 4:

Quote of the Week: There are 7 days in a week, and someday is not one of them.

Today’s Tools – Common Issues with Athletes’ Hydration:

1. Drinking Reactively

All too often, athletes drink after already becoming dehydrated, much too far into their workouts. I recommend drinking proactively.

You should always think of your fuel as what your body will use in the next 15-60 minutes, not just a source of replenishment (until you’re done with your workout).

If you’re already in a hole, and drinking to replenish, you will train at less than your potential.

The better you fuel, the better you can train, the better you will become.

So, begin hydrating/fueling before your workout, and continue with small sips throughout, from the beginning of any ride lasting longer than 90 minutes (or >60 depending on intensity and weather conditions).

2. Diluting Sports Drinks

I would estimate that 50-60% of athletes dilute their drink substantially.

Why? It’s no surprise really, most sports drinks taste too sweet, and they go down easier when diluted.

The issue? You’re not just diluting the flavor, but needed carbohydrates and electrolytes as well.

Although carbohydrates may reach adequate levels with other sources, I still seldom see athletes consuming enough electrolytes, especially sodium, with diluted drinks.

If you find that you can only get the drink down when diluted, here are my recommendations:

  1. Consider another drink – there are many out there with lighter, less sweet flavors.
  2. Add back in the sodium you’re missing.  Remember, most serious athletes should strive for 400-700 or more milligrams of sodium per hour, and 1/12 of a tsp. (0.5 grams) salt provides 200 milligrams sodium.

3. Assuming Adequate Nutrients – Specifically Sodium

This is similar to my second biggest mistake, but often made by athletes who aren’t diluting their drinks (of course, this mistake is compounding when inadequate drinks are diluted).

Many athletes blindly drink a popular drink, without ever glancing at the label or comparing their intake to their needs. Even some of the most expensive, seemingly science-based drinks are far too low in sodium. In fact, I don’t know of any that provide my recommended 600+ mg sodium for hot weather.

Why? I believe this is because they are marketed to all different types of athletes, and may don’t need this much (if drinking more for recreation). And, they likely fear the “health backlash” that might come with a high-sodium label.

I recommend a minimum of 100 milligrams of sodium per 8 ounces of sports drink.  Especially as the weather heats up, sodium becomes more and more important before, during, and after training.

Sodium not only re-balances the fluid and electrolyte ratio in the plasma, but also increases fluid absorption in the gut.

There’s no doubt in my mind that too low sodium intake while training is responsible for many, many bonks and poor performances.

4. Forcing a Drink You Don’t Like

Although it sounds crazy, I’ve worked with countless athletes who have choked down their drink, simply because they believe it to be the best, have seen others win with it, or because their buddy swears by it.

The result? If you don’t like your drink, you most likely won’t drink enough.

If you don’t drink enough, you risk dehydration, nausea/vomiting, poor performance, bonking and worse.  Especially when it’s hot, some drinks thicken, and some simply taste bad.

If yours does, free yourself from gagging and find one you like.  Even if it seems that it’s not new enough, trendy enough, or loaded with enough extras, as long as you like the taste, it has adequate sodium and some carbs, and you’re able to drink around 20 ounces or more per hour, it’s a good choice.

You can add in more carbs and nutrients with other foods and fuel sources.

5. Over-Hydrating (ESPECIALLY without Sodium)

Some athletes simply drink too much. Typically, pushing 30+ oz. per hour fluid while working out strenuously will cause stomach cramps at best, and over-hydration or hyponatremia at worst.  If the fluid consumed is water, without sodium, this is a huge risk. And even with sodium, it’s very tough to consume enough sodium to balance with this amount of fluid. Either way, your plasma will be out of balance.

And often, athletes will feel like they hydrated well because they are peeing after a workout, and their pee is clear (diluted).  Here’s the issue if there’s no (or inadequate) sodium involved with high amounts of fluid:

Let’s say , for the sake of simplicity, plasma is normally made of a 2:1 ratio of water and sodium. And, in this story, we have 10 waters and 5 sodiums.

When you sweat, breathe, urinate, etc., you lose both water and sodium….after an hour, you’re down to 6 waters and only 3 sodium.

Then, you only replenish water,  and your plasma is hugely out of balance at 10 waters and 3 sodiums. What’s a body to do?

It will do it’s best to get rid of the extra water, through more urination, usually. So, peeing is not always an indication of good hydrating.

And if this doesn’t work (and it often doesn’t because the body may continue to also lose sodium – although it will send out a hormone to decrease sodium loss), the electrolytes become severely diluted and the athlete suffers bonking, failure to regulate body temperature, nausea/vomiting, and more.

6. Drinking Sports Drinks When Sedentary

Sports drinks are great…when training.

When not training at present or in the immediate future or past (within an hour), they are simply nothing more than sugar and sodium-loaded refined drinks. Similar to a sugar based soda or candy.

There’s really nothing in them your body needs when you’re sitting at your desk, or sitting on your couch.

They have exactly what your body can use when you’re engaging in physical stress and exercise.

Give your body the fuel it needs at the right times: sports drinks, easy-to-digest foods, and fuel when training, and real, whole, minimally processed foods at all other times.

What drink, then? Of course, it’s easiest if I just tell you what sports drinks to drink, right?

Well, I believe individual preference plays a big role (see #4).  But, I can certainly lead you down the right path with a few choices to start.

  • I’m a fan of Carborocket (CR333 is my favorite), Skratchlabs, Tailwind, and many Infinite blends. And, I’m a fan of my homebrew (8 oz. organic lemonade + 12 oz. water + 1/4 tsp salt…on 3+ hour workouts, also add 1/2 tsp l-glutamine and 1/2 tsp bcaas (2.5 gm each)).
  • I actually reached out to Brad at Carborocket a few years back b/c I like his drinks best, and he generously offers my clients a discount – use code Apex2014 for 25% off at this site: CarboRocket
  • I also like Skratchlabs, but for different reasons. Skratchlabs has a natural, light flavor. It often works well for clients who want to have different drinks on long rides. It will not deliver nearly the amount of carbs per hour as CR333, so other carb options need to be added (see Week 2) when using it.
  • For lower carb options when training less than 60-90 minutes or trying to lose fat (prioritized over performance goals), I like NUUN and Hammer Endurolyte Fizz okay, but would actually rather use a True Lemon Lemonade + 1/12-1/8 tsp salt.

Got questions? I’m happy to answer the forum: https://www.apexnutritionllc.com/fuelrightblog/forums/forum/apex-nutrition-boot-camp-forum-march-2019/

Today’s Challenge:

My challenge today is to identify if you regularly make any of the above “mistakes,” and put a plan in place to correct them.:)

Fuel well, feel well.

Tomorrow, we’ll wrap up this Hydration-Charged Week!

(Click here to head back to the Boot Camp HOMEPAGE)

Day 5:

Quote of the Week: There are 7 days in a week, and someday is not one of them.

Today’s Tools:

Another week with a lot of content. Let’s catch our breath and review today. Here are the highlights and challenges for this week:

  1. Hydration is oh-so-important to your body. It’s vital to every organ, every system, and every reaction.
  2. Daily Hydration helps give us a good foundation before we push our bodies in training in addition to promoting overall wellness. My challenge, drink 80-100 oz. (women) or 100-120 oz. (men) per day in addition to hydration replaced during/after workouts.
  3. Hydration while training and racing is also crucially important. In fact, dehydration has direct negative impacts on performance. To get enough, I generally recommend 18-24 oz. per hour when training/racing >90 minutes (less for specific situation or activities, like running)
  4. I’ve worked with thousands of athletes, 1-on-1 over the last 13 years. There are ~6 biggest mistakes I commonly see made with training-nutrition hydration.  Don’t let them happen to you!

A couple extra tools:

1) You can catch up with the online class video anytime you’d like (again, this is a private link): https://youtu.be/FXA8J5J-yzw
2) Got questions? I have answers on the forum: https://www.apexnutritionllc.com/fuelrightblog/forums/forum/apex-nutrition-boot-camp-forum-march-2019/

This week’s challenges:

Hydration is simple, but not necessarily easy.

This week, commit to putting great daily hydration in place so that you have a great foundation off which to start any training.

Then, add the right hydration, when needed. Not too little, not too much, and almost always with sodium added.

This week, not someday.

(Click here to head back to the Boot Camp HOMEPAGE)